# Databse Lecture Note - L2 Relational Model

## 1 What is relational model

• Relational databse: A collection of one or more relations, which are based on the relational model.
• Relation: A table with rows and columns.

## 2 Structure of Relational Databases

### 2.1 Attribute Types

• Each attribute of a relation has a name.
• The set of allowed values for each attribute is called the domain (域) of the attribute.
• Attribute values are (normally) required to be atomic, i.e., indivisible
• The special value null is a member of every domain.
• The null value causes complications in the definition of many operations.

A relation is concerned with two concepts:

• relation schema, which describes the structure of the relation
• relation instance, which corresponds to the snapshot of the data in the relation at a given instant in time.

Formal definition: Assume $$A_1, A_2, \dots, A_n$$ are attributes, $$R = A_1, A_2, \dots, A_n$$ is a relation schema. $$r(R)$$ is a relation on the relation schema $$R$$.

E.g. $instructor = (ID, name, dept\_name, salary)$ $instructor(instructor\text{-}schema) = instructor(ID, name, dept\_name, salary)$

### 2.3 Properties of Relation

• The order of tuples is irrelevant.
• No duplicated tuples in a relation.
• Attribute values are atomic.

### 2.4 key

Let $$K \subseteq R$$, then $$K$$ is:

• super key of $$R$$ if values for $$K$$ are sufficient to identify a unique tuple of each possible relation $$r(R)$$.
E.g., both {ID} and {ID, name} are super keys of the relation instructor.
• candidate key of $$R$$ if $$K$$ is minimal super key.
E.g., {ID} is a candidate key for the relation instructor.
• primary key of $$R$$ if $$K$$ is a condidate key and is defined by user explicitly.

### 2.5 Foreign Key

Assume there exists relations $$r$$ and $$s$$: $$r(\underline{A}, \boldsymbol{B}, C), s(\underline{\boldsymbol{B}}, D)$$, we can say that attribute $$B$$ in relation $$r$$ is foreign key referencing $$s$$, and $$r$$ is a referencing relation (参照关系), and $$s$$ is a referenced relation (被参照关系).

E.g. $account(\underline{\boldsymbol{account\text{-}number}}, branch\text{-}name, balance)$ $depositor (\underline{customer\text{-}name}, \boldsymbol{account\text{-}number})$

### 2.7 Cartesian product

Given sets $$D_1, D_2, \dots, D_n (D_i = a_{ij|j=1 \dots k})$$, a relation r is a subset of $$D_1 \times D_2 \times \dots D_n$$. ### 2.8 Schema Diagram ## 3 Fundamental Relational-Algebra Operations

### 3.1 Select

• Notation: $$\sigma_p(r)$$, where $$p$$ is called the selection predicate
• Definition: $$\sigma_p(r) = \left\{ t| t \in r \text{ and } p(t) \right\}$$

### 3.2 Project

• Notation: $$\prod_{A_1, A_2 , \dots, A_k}(r)$$, where $$A_1, A_2, \dots, A_k$$ are attribute names and $$r$$ is a relation name.
• Definition: The result is defined as the relation of $$k$$ columns obtained by erasing the columns that are not listed.

### 3.3 Union

• Notation: $$r \cup s$$
• Definition: $$r \cup s = \left\{ t| t \in r \text{ or } t \in s \right\}$$

### 3.4 Set difference

• Notation: $$r - s$$
• Definition: $$r-s = \left\{ t \in r \text{ and } t \notin s \right\}$$
• Notice: set differens must be taken between compatible relations.

### 3.5 Cartesian product

• Notation: $$r \times s$$
• Definition: $$r \times s = \left\{ \left\{ t, q \right\} | t \in r \text{ and } q \in s \right\}$$
• Notice: attributes of $$r(R)$$ and $$s(S)$$ are disjoint, if not, rename the attributes.

### 3.6 Rename

• Notation: $$\rho_x(E)$$, rename $$E$$ under the name $$x$$.

### 3.7 Some Examples

#### 3.7.1 E.g. 1: Find all loans of over $1200. $\sigma_{amount>1200}(loan)$ #### 3.7.2 E.g. 2: Find the loan number for each loan of an amount greater than$1200.

$\prod\nolimits_{loan\text{-}number}(\sigma_{amount>1200}(loan))$

#### 3.7.3 E.g. 3: Find the names of all customers who have a loan, or an account, or both, from the bank.

$\prod\nolimits_{customer\text{-}name}(borrow) \cup \prod\nolimits_{customer\text{-}name}(depositor)$

#### 3.7.4 E.g. 4: Find the names of all customers who have a loan at the Perryridge branch.

$\prod\nolimits_{customer\text{-}name}( \sigma_{borrower.loan\text{-}number = loan.loan\text{-}number}(borrower \times (\sigma_{branch\text{-}name='Perryridge'}(loan))) )$

#### 3.7.5 E.g. 5: Find the largest account balance.

$\prod\nolimits_{balance}(account) - \prod\nolimits_{account.balance}( \sigma_{acount.balance < d.balance}(account \times \rho_d(account)) )$

### 4.1 Set intersection

• Notation: $$r \cap s$$
• Definition: $$r \cap s = \left\{ t| t \in r \text{ and } t \in s \right\}$$
• Notice: set differens must be taken between compatible relations.

## 5 Extended Relational-Algebra Operations

### 5.1 Generalized Projection

Extends the projection operation by allowing arithmetic functions to be used in the projection list.

• Notation: $$\prod_{F_1, F_2, \dots, F_n}(E)$$

$$E$$ is any relational-algebra expression, and each of $$F_1, F_2, \dots, F_n$$ are arithmetic expressions involving constants and attributes in the schema of $$E$$.

### 5.2 Aggregate Functions and Operations

• Notation: $$G_1, G_2, \dots, G_n g_{F_1(A_1), F_2(A_2), \dots, F_n(A_N)}(E)$$

$$E$$ is any relational-algebra expression, $$G_1, G_2, \dots, G_n$$ is a list of attributes on which to group (can be empty), each $$F_i$$ is an aggregate function, and each $$A_i$$ is an attribute name. ## 6 Modification of the Database

### 6.1 Deletion

$$r \leftarrow r-E$$

### 6.2 Insertion

$$r \leftarrow r \cup E$$

### 6.3 Updating

$$r \leftarrow \prod_{F_1, F_2, \dots, F_n}(R)$$

Created: 2019-03-05 Tue 23:17